Canada, stretching from the U.S. in the south to the Arctic Circle in the north, is filled with vibrant cities including massive, multicultural Toronto; predominantly French-speaking Montréal and Québec City; Vancouver and Halifax on the Pacific and Atlantic coasts, respectively; and Ottawa, the capital. It’s also crossed by the Rocky Mountains and home to vast swaths of protected wilderness.
Canada is a member state of the United Nations in the northern hemisphere of Earth. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometers (3.85 million square miles), making it the world’s second-largest country by total area and the fourth-largest country by land area. Canada’s border with the United States is the world’s longest land border. Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land territory being dominated by forest and tundra and the Rocky Mountains; about four-fifths of the country’s population of 35 million people live near the southern border. The majority of Canada has a cold or severely cold winter climate, but southerly areas are warm in summer.
The land now called Canada has been inhabited for millennia by various Aboriginal peoples. Norsemen settled briefly at L’Anse aux Meadows in Newfoundland around 1000 AD. Beginning in the 15th century, British and French colonies were established on the Atlantic coast, with the first establishment of a region called “Canada” occurring in 1537. As a consequence of various conflicts, the United Kingdom gained and lost territories within British North America until left, in the late 18th century, with what mostly geographically comprises Canada today. Pursuant to the British North America Act, on July 1, 1867, the colonies of Canada, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia joined to form the autonomous federal Dominion of Canada. This began an accretion of provinces and territories to the self-governing Dominion to the present ten provinces and three territories forming modern Canada. In 1931, Canada achieved near total independence from the United Kingdom with the Statute of Westminster 1931, and full sovereignty was attained when the Canada Act 1982 removed the last remaining ties of legal dependence on the British parliament.
The history of Canada covers the period from the arrival of Paleo -Indians thousands of years ago to the present day. Canada has been inhabited for millennia by distinctive groups of Aboriginal peoples, with distinct trade networks, spiritual beliefs, and social hierarchies. Some of these civilizations had long faded by the time of the first European arrivals and have been discovered through archaeological investigations. Various treaties and laws have been enacted between European settlers and the Aboriginal populations.
Beginning in the late 15th century French and British expeditions explored, and later settled, along with the Atlantic Coast. France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America to Britain in 1763 after the Seven Years’ War. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the British Empire, which became official with the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and completed in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament.
Over centuries, elements of Aboriginal, French, British and more recent immigrant customs have combined to form a Canadian culture. Canadian culture has also been strongly influenced by its linguistic, geographic and economic neighbor, the United States. Since the conclusion of the Second World War, Canadians have supported multilateralism abroad and socioeconomic development domestically. Canada currently consists of ten provinces and three territories and is governed as a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy with Queen Elizabeth II as its head of state.
For tens of thousands of years, Canada was inhabited by Aboriginal peoples from a variety of different cultures and of several major linguistic groupings Although not without conflict and bloodshed, early European interactions with First Nations and Inuit populations in what is now Canada were arguably peaceful. First Nations and Métis peoples played a critical part in the development of European colonies in Canada, particularly for their role in assisting European coureur des bois and voyageurs in the exploration of the continent during the North American fur trade. Combined with late economic development in many regions, this comparably nonbelligerent early history allowed Aboriginal Canadians to have a lasting influence on the national culture (see: The Canadian Crown and Aboriginal peoples). Over the course of three centuries, countless North American Indigenous words, inventions, concepts, and games have become an everyday part of Canadian language and use Many places in Canada, both natural features and human habitations, use indigenous names. The name “Canada” itself derives from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word meaning “village” or “settlement”.The name of Canada’s capital city Ottawa comes from the Algonquin language term “adawe” meaning “to trade”
Canadian culture is a term that embodies the artistic, culinary, literary, humor, musical, political and social elements that are representative of Canada and Canadians. Throughout Canada’s history, its culture has been influenced by European culture and traditions, especially British and French, and by its own indigenous cultures. Over time, elements of the cultures of Canada’s immigrant populations have become incorporated into mainstream Canadian culture. The population has also been influenced by American culture because of a shared language, proximity and migration between the two countries
Canada is often characterized as being “very progressive, diverse, and multicultural”. Canada’s federal government has often been described as the instigator of multicultural ideology because of its public emphasis on the social importance of immigrationCanada’s culture draws from its broad range of constituent nationalities, and policies that promote a just society are constitutionally protected Canadian Government policies—such as publicly funded health care; higher and more progressive taxation; outlawingcapital punishment; strong efforts to eliminate poverty; an emphasis on cultural diversity; strict gun control; and most recently, legalizing same-sex marriage—are social indicators of Canada’s political and cultural values Canadians identify with the country’s institutions of health care, military peacekeeping, the National park system and the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.
A multitude of languages is spoken in Canada. According to the 2006 census, English and French are the preferred language (“home language”, or language spoken most often in the home) of 67.1% and 21.5% of the population, respectively. English and French are recognized by the Constitution of Canada as “official languages,” which means that all laws of the federal government are enacted in both English and French and that federal government services are required to be available in both languages.
The five most widely-spoken non-official languages are Chinese (the home language of 2.6% of Canadians), Punjabi (0.8%), Spanish (0.7%), Italian (0.6%), and Arabic (0.5%).
1)The most common greeting is the handshake.
2)It should be firm and accompanied by direct eye contact and a sincere smile.
3)Wait until invited before using someone’s first name although Canadians tend to move on a first-name basis rapidly.
4)French Canadian friends may greet each other by lightly kissing on the cheeks (once on the left cheek and once on the right).
5)If using French in Quebec always use the formal pronoun “vous” (you) when speaking to someone and do not switch to the informal “tu” unless invited to do so.
1)Great Canadian Warehouse Bar & Billiards
6)Club Mardi Gras Niagara
4) Quebec City
5) Niagara Falls
13) Yellow Life
14) Lake Louise
15) Niagara On The Lake
17) White Horse
21) New Found Land
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