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Uzbekistan

The history of Uzbekistan, its culture and statehood, foreign economic and social ties of the territory is more than 2.5 millennia. Uzbekistan's freedom loving population fought for its independence against all foreign invaders during centuries. Situated on the crossroads of the Great Silk Road, the region played an important role in the dialogue of different civilizations. Its flourishing in the ancient times, then during the reign of the Samanids and Timurids is connected with the involvement of the region in the international economic interrelations. As far back as in the pre-Islamic period, Zoroastrism, the world spread religious system was born on the territory of the present day Uzbekistan (in Khorezm) and became common property of all mankind. There was formed the highest technological culture of those times: town-planning, irrigation systems, armory, silk-weaving, cultivation of grain, cotton, grapes and fruits. In those times local technologies and master-craftsmen (Ustos) were highly valued and appreciated. The synthetic character is rather typical for this particular civilization: Combination of achievements gained by the Sogdians, peoples of Khorezm, Turks, India, China, Iran, Middle East and by Hellenism. The religious extension of Islam to Maverannahr, accompanied by military invasions of the Arabs in the 7-8th centuries met with the resistance from the local religious tradition, embodied in the Zoroastrism of the Sogdians and Backtrians, Buddhism of the residents of Balkh and the Upper Amudarya, and the growing authority of the Christian communities. However later on the population of the region was convinced in the great cultural and moral possibilities of Islam. The final victory of Islam in Turan may be related to the creation of politically and spiritually united state of the Samanid Turks in the 9th century with the center in the Zarafshan oasis (Samarkand and Bukhara). It was based on the rise of trade and development of the local artisans' production export.

The new spiritual and economic situation in Central Asia determined a new technological progress. It seems to be appropriate to mark the production of the Samarkand paper (since the 8th century under the Chinese influence the people of Samarkand learned to manufacture paper from the rags), which supplanted papyrus and parchment in the Moslem countries at the end of the 10th century. The real flourishing of the genetic fund of the population was caused by the abundance of grain. Scientists al-Khorezmi, Beruni, Farabi, Abu Ali ibn Sino (Avicenna) brought fame to their Motherland all over the world. They were respected by Moslems, as well as Christians, Judaists and Buddhists.

The Islamic spiritual and political Renaissance after the Mongols invasion was based not only on the strategic plans of nobility but first and foremost on the needs of the population majority to liberate Central Asian civilization from the brute power and animosity between the tribes. Feeling that necessity, Timur (1336-1405) united townsfolk, countryfolk and steppe communities of Maverannahr. Under the power of Timur military victories were consolidated by creating a complicated system of the administrative governing, and the common norms of law ("Code of Timur"). Considerable funds were given from the state treasury for the construction of grandiose public structures, gardens, roads and canals. The Timurids Renaissance in the 15th and the first half of the 16th century is based on the cultural-economic integration of the region. The area of its rich technological potential was extended up to the Mediterranean Sea and Northern India (culture of the Great Mogul Empire), Many scientific achievements of the Timurids epoch made a great impact on the European science (it is enough to mention the astronomical tables of Samarkand astronomers from Ulughbek's observatory).

At the turn of the 15-16th centuries Vasco de Gama's ships blazed the Sea route from Europe to India and further on to China. The region lost its strategic economic importance on which it had rested for two millennia. The region happened to turn a political and economic periphery zone. The technological potential of Central Asia found itself locked from the outside world development for almost 3 centuries. Colonial annexation of Central Asia by the Tsarist Russia in 1860 bound Turkestan with Russia for 130 years.

Foreign economic and international contacts of the region were monopolized first by St. Petersburg and then by the Soviet Moscow. Beginning with 1890's and up to 1917, Turkestan was a part of the Russian Empire, its governor-general's province, and its rule was the charge of war ministry, which also played the role of the ministry of colonies. Economic calculation of that period show that the region both paid the Russian colonization and gave a certain income to the treasury of the state. It is rather interesting that the advanced American technologies and cotton varieties were used in the region at that time.

After the collapse of Tsarism, Turkestan received the chance for its rebirth. Diplomatic missions of many countries including the USA mission were represented in Tashkent in 1918-1919. But in 1924 there was an artificial division of the single ethnic, cultural and economic space of the Turkestan land into the Soviet national republics. Millions of Uzbeks, Kazakhs, Kyrghyzes and Turkmen happened to be separated. Under the oppression of the totalitarian system the national liberation movement of native people was transferred into spiritual sphere. A dream of liberation, national state and unified Turkestan never died. The collapse of the former USSR created a situation which the people of Uzbekistan expected. On August 31, 1991, the Parliament adopted the Declaration of the State Independence of the Republic of Uzbekistan. On December 29, 1991, this decision was supported by referendum. This was the beginning of the history of our country - the country open to the world community.

Tashkent

The Capital of  Morden Uzbekistan Tashkent is a city on border of agricultural oases of Central Asia and boundless Eurasian steppes. People have lived here already many thousand years. The fertile green of the Tashkent oasis stretched on coast of small, but the abounding in water river - Chirchik, have attracted the human in the Stone Age. Chirchik follows from Chimgan Mountains (this is the western spurs of highland Tien Shan) and runs into the Syr Darya River. In an antiquity to expand the area of grounds irrigated by Chirchik, in its top current - numerous channels were allocated. These channels operate even today, they proceed through modern city in the form of natural small rivers, but actually it is the irrigational constructions dug by people two - two thousand of years ago. If you look at Tashkent from the plane clearly it is possible to see, that the city settles down at bottom of high mountains on the hilly plain pitted by channels which are smoothly going down from northeast on a southwest. The highest mark within the limits of city - 511,7 meters above sea level, the lowest - 381,1 meters. Archeologists identify on the territory of modern capital of Uzbekistan some significant archeological objects that are ancestors of Tashkent. Tashkent’s history can be observed from late III century B.C. – time from which the written sources and ancient city inside the contemporary city were preserved. One of them is the ancient city of Ming Orik situated on the Salar canal. Based on their excavations, the archeologists concluded that the first fortifications of the city were built at the end of I century B.C. - early I century A.D., i.e. the city is already 20 centuries old. Chinese chronicles that were based on the memoirs of the Chinese Ambassador Chjan Tsan with whom the concept of the first caravan route along the Great Silk Road is related can be named among the first written sources. In various Chinese sources the city mentioned as the city of Shi. At that time it was part of the Kongyuy State as independent kingdom. Soon it was conquered by Turks who established the great state on the territory of Central Asia. Chinese hieroglyph «Shi» means stone. But sources mention not only this name. For instance, according to writing of Sassanid king Shapur I in Iran in 262 A.D. the word «Chach» was drawn on the Zoroaster’s altar. Some of the experts refer the meaning from words Chach-kent, that in translation from ancient Turk language means "city of the Chach country". Under name Chach it is known in documents and inscriptions of ancient Persian kings who repeatedly undertook military campaigns here.

In those times Chach was desired extraction for conquerors: Persian Emperors, Macedonians under Alexander the Great, nomads of the Central Asia, local residents were fire-worshippers, monuments of Zoroastrism epoch were found on all territory of modern Tashkent. Under separate hills archeologists have found small settlements - castles, temples of Fire. Rather frequently characteristic ossuaries appeared in the ground of Tashkent - the special decorated clay vessels to keep human bones according to Zoroastrian canons. After destruction of Chach (Arabs called "Shash") by Muslim conquerors under commander Kuteiba ibn Muslim, city in area Ming Orik tepe has not restored any more, and began to build up in the other place - on a hill between modern squares - Khadra, Eski-Juva and Chorsu. Builders of XVI centuries - during Sheybanid governor Dervish Muhammad-khan have chosen this extremity southern face of medieval internal city - Shakhristan - for erection of a majestic building - Madrassah (that is Islamic institute), the largest one of seventeen similar educational institutions existing in Tashkent.

Other group of interesting monuments of a history and architecture are the kept constructions of new city created by talented engineers of the end XIX  and the beginning of XX centuries for public institutions of an administrative center of the Turkistan territory formed in Central Asia after a conquering these grounds by Russian empires.  Our present including both old, and new, numerous reorganizations, full re-planning, grandiose super modern construction - all this has transformed Tashkent into a unique sample of the largest Central Asian city in which it is extremely instructive for us to try to comprehend mutual relation of an antiquity and the present, to understand spirit of this city. In 1991, after collapse of The Soviet Union, Uzbekistan declared itself as an Independent state with its capital in Tashkent. In 2007, Tashkent was named the cultural capital of the Islamic world as the city is home to numerous historic mosques and religious establishments. In 2009, Tashkent celebrated worldwide its 2200 years anniversary.

Tashkent Sights

  • Khazrat Imam Mosque
  • Kaffal Shoshiy Mausoleum
  • Barak Khan Madrassah
  • Tillya Sheikh Madrassah
  • Muyi Muborak Madrassah
  • Kukeldash Madrassah
  • Kokcha Mosque
  • Abul Kasim Madrassah
  • Museum of Applied Arts
  • Museum Of History of Uzbekistan
  • Museum Of Fine Arts
  • Amir Temur Museum
  • The mansion of Romanov
  • Independence Square
  • Grand Opera and Ballet Theatre named after Alisher Navoi
  • Chorsu Bazaar
  • Tashkent Metro
  • Monument of Courage
  • Memorial of Repressions
  • Tashkent TV Tower

Cities

Samarkand - The Capital of Amir Temur's Empire.
Bukhara - The center of Medieval Islamic Education.
Khiva - The Capital Of Khorezmian State.
Termez - THe Center Of Central Asian Buddhism.
Nukus - The capital of Karakalpakstan Autonomous Republic.
Fergana - The Center of Russian Culture and Architecture in Fergana Valley.
Andijan - The hometown of Zakhiriddin Mukhammad Babur - the founder of Mugal Empire.
Kokand - The Capital Of Kokand Khanate.
Navoi - The city on the Silk Road of Uzbekistan.

People Of Uzbekistan

People in Uzbekistan are known for their hospitality, friendly and peaceful nature. The people of Uzbekistan belong to diverse categories and ethnic races. The rich and varied history of Uzbekistan have made the customs and traditions of the Uzbek people more colorful. The population of Uzbekistan comprises the ethnic groups of Uzbeks, Karakalpaks, Russians, Tajiks, Kazakhs, Tatars and many others. The people in Uzbekistan are famous throughout the world because of their amicable nature and courteous attitude. The Uzbeks are not only helpful towards their neighbors but also to the foreign travelers visiting their country. The cultural and traditional heritage of the Uzbekistan people keep them united. “Shashmaqam” is the exquisite traditional music form of Uzbekistan that precisely states the affectionate nature of these music loving people. This music form fuses six different styles of songs. that has been derived from the various ethnic groups residing in Uzbekistan. Persian and Sufi music also has greatly influenced this form. The people of Uzbekistan are fair with interesting facial features. The features vary with their origin. Some people have small eyes and sharp nose while some have flat features. Usually they are tall and stout people. The Uzbek people are very diet conscious and follow discipline in whatever they do. A casual meeting may also be honored through traditional customs like serving tea and raising toast. The Uzbek people greet people to their house at any hour of the day. It is customary to embrace or kiss on the cheek of their near and dear ones on meeting, after a long period of time. These people live a simple but an elegant lifestyle. Their professional fields are mainly family business or agricultural ctivities. The Uzbek people are very much family oriented people, who dedicate their every minute of leisure to their family members. The Uzbekistan People love to live their life simple without any violence or corruption and welcome their guests from all over the world to a safe land for spending their vacations.

 

Great Personalities Of Uzbekistan

Abu-Rayhon Beruniy
Abu-Rayhon Beruniy– a remarkable scientist, amazing with variety of his scientific interests, boldness of idea, the author of more than 150 works devoted to actual issues of natural sciences, philosophy, history, philology, great encyclopaedist– the thinker, the humanist of the Middle Ages epoch. Outlook of Abu-Rayhon Beruniy was formed at the end of X – the beginning of XI century in Central Asia. He was born on 2 Zu-ul-hidja in 362 (on September 4, 973 A.D.) in suburb of Kyat, former feudal capital of Khorezm. On the native land he has received good education and from a youth began his scientific activity. Due to political events in Khoresm Beruniy left the native land and approximately in between 998-1004 lived in Gurgan, at southeast coast of Caspian Sea. At this time he has done a great work – « Monuments of the past generations ». In about 1005 Beruniy came back to Khorezm, where at a court yard of the Khorezm king Abu Abbas Mamun ibn Mamun (1009-1017) occupied honorable position. In 1017 Mahmud Gaznavi (998-1034) has subordinated to himself Khoresm, and in the same year Beruniy together with some other scientists had been compelled to follow the conqueror to Hansa where he stayed up to the end of his life. Despite the unfavorable conditions for him in the capital Mahmuda, Beruniy was entirely given to scientific researches. Together with the army of sultan, Beruniy had several times visited India. He has taken advantage of the trips for studying this country and as a result, by 4030 he had written an outstanding composition on India. Earlier, in 1025 Beruniy finished "Geodesy". To sultan Masud (1030-1041), the receiver Mahmud, Beruniy has devoted his main work on mathematics and astronomy – « Masudov kanon». At government of the subsequent sultan – Masud (1041 - 1048) – Беруни written the big work on mineralogy, and at the end of a life – "Saydan". He died in Gazna 2 Radjab 440. (on December 11, 1048).

Al-Khorezmi Muhammed Bin - Mussa (783 - 850)
Nickname Al – Khorezmi specifies his native land – the Central Asian state Khoresm (nowadays territory of Uzbekistan), Bin Mussa – "son of Mussa", and one of nicknames of the scientist – Al – Madjusi– speaks about his origin from a sort of magicians (on – Arabic "madjus"). It shows also, that one of sources of knowledge of Mohammed Al – Хорезми was science prior to Islamic Central Asia the keepers of which were magicians. He managed in Baghdad the library of wisdom House of some sort of the Baghdad academy at caliphate of Al – Mamun. There were the arithmetic treatise « The Book about the Indian account », the algebraic treatise « The Brief book about calculation of algebra and almukabal», astronomical tables and a geographical path. Both mathematical treatises have been translated into Latin language of medieval Europe and served for a long time as the basic textbooks on mathematics. Nickname Al-Khorezmi in the modified form has turned to a nominal word "algorithm" and all over again meant all system of decimal item arithmetics. Subsequently this term has received a wider sense in mathematics as a rule performing operations in certain order. Thus, actions « Al - Djebr» and "Al-Mukabala" have replaced with themselves transfer of nowadays-used equation members from one part of the equation into another and reduction of similar members. These two operations have allowed Al – Khorezmi to transfer any algebraic equation of the first and second degree into initial forms which Al – Khorezmi has six. Unlike Greeks who, certainly, also solved quadratic equations, but solved in geometrical way, Al – Khorezmi used drawings only for explanation of the rhetorical decision validity. He could solve any quadratic equation by his general rule (finding positive roots). If Greeks had geometrical solutions the method Al – Khorezmi was almost algebraic. This is an enormous step forward in comparison with geometrical algebra of Greeks. In the arithmetic treatise Al – Khorezmi basically followed the Indian samples, and from him the Europeans have got familiar with the Indian methods of recording the numbers, that is the use of zero and location of figures values. The algebraic path differed from both works, that of Indian mathematicians, and Greeks. It can be believed, that in this book Al – Khorezmi followed local traditions and own results. If the majority of Greeks did not see necessity to apply the scientific knowledge to practical needs, the main desire of Al – Khorezmi was to place a science to serve to humankind and to adapt it for the practical purposes. In Algebra Al – Khorezmi has a section about trade and commercial transactions, with problems on a threefold Rule. Thus, for the first time in a history of mathematics in the treatise of Al – Хорезми have appeared the general rules of solving the quadratic equations.

Alisher Navoiy
An ingenious poet and the thinker, the musician and the artist, the teacher and the scientist, a great statesman and one of the most cultural persons of his time. Alisher Navoi was the conventional head of the cultural life of Herat, the patron of numerous representatives of sciences, arts and cultures. “Due to Alisher many people have received literary and art education and talent strengthening and there is no any other patron and the tutor of people as Alisher”. - wrote Babur Alisher Navoi was born on February 9, 1441 in the city of Herat, the capital of Huroson State. From the childhood Alisher was interested in reading the works of classics of Persian-Tadjik literature: Saadi, Attar and others. According to Navoiy himself, such poets as Lutfi Sheikh Kemal Turbati have directed, assessed the verses written by him. Navoiy studied at the most educated people of that time, took part in their highly intellectual and deeply instructive conversations. Having no family, no children, no successors, the poet spent a significant part of his huge wealth for charity. He has constructed a lot of educational institutions, hospitals, a caravan–sheds, channels, bridges and roads. In Herat Navoiy maintained the closest relations with the great Tadjik poet and thinker Abdurrahman Dzhami (1414 - 1492) who was his closest friend, the adherent, the teacher and the spiritual instructor. Friendship of Navoiy and Dzhami remain in a history for ever as a bright symbol of friendship between Uzbeks and Tadjiks. By the time when Navoiy became one of the outstanding persons in Hurasan, having received a honorable post at a court yard, he already had reputation of the masterly master of a verse. The generosity of his talent was that the poet has captured all versions of lyrical works created by peoples of the Muslim East during many centuries. Gazals and kitas, tarjibans and rubai– in what genre would not act Навои, he proved everywhere with shine boundless opportunities of his talent and skill. Many known representatives of the literature, art and science of second half 15 – the beginning of 16 century, as a token of deep respect for Alisher Navoi and in gratitude for his support, devoted to him their works. The image of this versatile and talented person historically is not separable from the broad audience of his contemporaries, friends, admirers and direct pupils – poets and musicians, scientists and architects, calligraphers and artists, historians and the writers, who defined their activity as cultural blossoming of Herat « epoch of Nabvoiy ». Navoiy died On January 3, 1501 in Herat. All Herat saw off to last way its favorite poet and the wise figure. The mourning concerning Alisher Navoi's death lasted during the whole year - so great was the love to the person who has devoted all talent and skills to the people who had been indefinitely loved by him. Alisher Navoi's literary heritage is very huge. In it we find the set of fine poems, epic products, scientifically – philosophical pathes, literary researches, biographies of scientists, poets, philosophers, works on a history, on linguistics. On the top of poetic creativity of Navoi is creation of "Hamsa" – a cycle from five poems: « Confusion just », « Layli and Madjnun», « Farhad and Shirin», « About seven wanderers », « Wall of Iskandar». The spiritual heritage of the remarkable son of Uzbeks presently gets to be known internationally, it becomes the property of everyone, to whom the interests of the world, friendship and nations unity is valuable.

Ismail-(Imam) Al-Bukhari
Al – Bukhari, Muhammad Ismail Abu Abdullah al – Djufi (810 - 870) – well-known Sunni muhaddist – traditionalist. He was born in the family of Iranian origin in Bukhara, has died in the Hartanka settlement (near Samarkand). Having started studying hadis at the age of 10 years, Al–Bukhari has shown uncommon abilities and unusual memory. During many years h) traveled, comprehending a science about hadises on different provinces of Khaliftae (Hijaz, Egypt, Iraq, Khurasan). According to sources, he listened хадисы more, than at thousand sheikhs. Аль – Бухари has aimed to collect all "authentic" (sahih) legends about statements and acts of Muhammed. Having shown peculiar to muhaddises of that time his critical attitude, Al–Bukhari has checked up 600 thousand hadises which were in use at that times, and 200 thousand more which he has written down from the teachers and informants. From this enormous amount of legends Al – Bukhari has selected by quality of "faultless" only about 7400 hadises. He has made the arch of them Al – Djami as– sahih which is usually named briefly as as– Sahih. As– Sahih of Al–Bukhai had already been recognized by contemporaries as an outstanding manual on fikh and by the 10th century has occupied despite criticism of some particulars, alongside with the As– Sahih of Muslim the first place among assemblies of sunni traditions. For the majority of sunnits the As– Sahih of Al–Bukhari became the second book after the Koran. Al Bukhari is also known as the composer of the authoritative arch of biographies of khadis transmitters – At – Trih al - kabir, created by him in several editions. Among his other compositions it is necessary to name still poorly studied interpretation on the Koran – Tafsir al–Kuran. In Samarkand has finished his life the great seminary student of East Imam Al-Bukhari. He is the thinker of Middle Ages, has written about 400 thousand hadises – interpretation of positions of the Koran, has made a big contribution to theology. Now all Muslim world lives on his hadisas while on his native land al-Bukhari has been given to a precept. The name has emerged only when the well-known Lebanese writer in 1958, having visited the USSR, has told, that wants to visit the tomb of the well-known seminary student. His request has caused an alarm at party players. The inquiry has been made to the Central Committee of Communist Party of Uzbekistan, therefrom – to the Academy of sciences. Both in the afternoon and at night they searched for tomb of Al Bukhari, yet having found out near Samarkand, near not perceptible village. Now the Imam Al-Bukhari complex is the magnificent construction constructed on modern technologies, keping all east architecture. It is 30 kilometers from Samarkand, but it is easy to reach it, for there are a lot of indexes, and the road is in good condition. In a complex, which occupies a huge territory (including external – with a fountain, additional constructions, park) are located the mosque, a tomb of the seminary student (it is processed from a jewel – onyx which bought from Iran), there is a hotel for tourists and pilgrims, shops where it is possible to get religious subjects and the literature.

Amir Temur (Tamerlane)
Amir Temur was born in 8th April 1336 in Hodja Ilgor village (Yakkabag) near Kesh (Shahrisabz). His father emir Muhammad Taragaj was from notable family of a Turkic sort barlas. He was the influential person and had the big authority in Movarounnahr. His ancestors took a worthy place in the ranks of Chigatay ulus palace elite and made up their family tree from legendary turkis marshal Alan – Kuva, and their possessions were around Kesh and Nefes. Temur’s father emir Taragay constantly participated in kurultyas of chugatay beks, convened by the ulus khan on coast of the river Il. In 1355 he marries the daughter of emir Dzhaku – of Turmush aga barlas. The Supreme emir of Mivarounnahr Kazagan, having convinced of advantages of Amir Temur., in the same year has given him his grand daughter Uldzhaj Turkan aga as wife. Due to this marriage there was a union of Amir Temur with emir Husajnom, grandson of Kazagana. They together opposed Mongols. In 1356 A. Temur had two sons – Djahangri and Omar Shajh. The economic situation in Movarounnahr at the end of 13th – first half of 14th century worsened from day to day. Khan of Mongolia Togluk Temur who without resistance in 1360 has reached up to Kashkadarya has taken advantage of it. Amir Temur has arrived to him for service. But when Togluk Temur has appointed as the governor of Movarounnahr his son Iljas Hodzha, Amir Temur has not wished to serve this prince and having agreed with governor Balh emir Husejnom Amir Temur has entered persistent struggle against Mongols. At that time Samarkand was dominated by sarbadors – "hunged men", who were also struggling against Mongols. The name of this national movement has arisen from slogans of its participants «Struggle for freedom, or a head on the gallows». In 1370 Amir Temur on kurultay in Balh has been proclaimed by the Supreme as emir of Turan. And the marriage with daughter of Chingizs Saray Mulk Hanum allowed Amir Temur to add to his name a honorable title "kuragan", i.e. « the son-in-law of khan ». The primary objective of Amir Temur became overcoming dissociation and association of separate possession into a uniform state. As a Capital of this state he has chosen Samarkand where has urgently started erection of city defensive walls, citadels and a palace. He has put in pawn a new Samarkand, near to ruins of ancient capital of Sogdiana (modern Afrasiab). Having united and subordinated the lands between Amu Darya and Syr-Darya, and also Fergana and Shash viloyat, Amir Temur began aggressive campaigns. For 35 years had lasted board of A.Temur (1370 - 1405) in Central Asia. He has created enormous empire from Indus and Ganges up to Syr-Darya and Zarafshan, from Tien-Shan up to Bosporus, he had lead the most part of his life in campaigns. During the campaign to China, in 1405 Amir Temur died in Ortrar. During the life time of Amir Temur a special composition about the government known under the name «Temur Code» has been written. It is a valuable historical source of the Middle Ages, consisting of two parts. In it there is a biography of Temur and the events connected to his life, sights of this outstanding statesman and the commander on military art, the methods and management of the country are stated. It is the valuable code of laws from which it is visible on the basis of what Amir Temur has created the centralized, controlled mighty state. Having created huge power, Amir Temur prepared conditions for economic and cultural development of the country. Century traditions of the last epoch revive in a new historical context. As Movarounnahr becomes the center of trade, economy and culture of Near and Middle East. Such ancient cities as Samarkand, Kesh, Bukhara, Termez, Tashkent, Merv, etc., which were destroyed by hordes of Chingizhan began to equip with modern conveniences. Majestic buildings of mosques, madrasah , the mausoleums, a caravan – sheds and bath houses were under construction. Became usual, that each victory or event were immortalized in architecture. In building activity Amir Temur pursued a certain political aim– the constructions erected by him were to show force, power and greatness of his empire. During years of his board Amir Temur has put an end to feudal dissociation, has established trading - diplomatic relations with the largest kingdoms of Europe – France, England, Castile. Unfortunately, after death of Amir Temur trading - diplomatic relations with the Western Europe, incorporated by him have no further developed. The history puts Amir Temur in same line with such greatest commanders, as Alexander the Great, Dari 1, Yuriy Caesar.

Weather

Uzbekistan has an extreme continental climate. It is generally warmest in the south and coldest in the north. Temperatures in December average -8°C (18°F) in the north and 0°C (32 °F) in the south. However, extreme fluctuations can take temperatures as low as -35°C (-31°F). During the summer temperatures can reach 45°C (113°F) and above. Humidity is low. Spring (April to June) and Fall (September through October) are in general the most pleasant times to travel. In Fall it's harvest time, and the markets are full of fresh fruit. If you're interested in trekking, then summer (July and August) is the best time, because summers are almost dry. In recent years Uzbekistan was notably affected by the global warming and dry-out of the Aral Sea, which turned snowy cold winters to mild with less precipitation by allowing to travel in the wintertime. The following is the average temperatures in Tashkent, the capital of Uzbekistan.

Month

Avg. High

Avg. Low

Mean

Avg. Precip.

Avg. High

Avg. Low

Mean

Avg. Precip.

Jan

42°F

26°F

33°F

2.20 in.

6°C

-3°C

1°C

55.9 mm

Feb

46°F

29°F

36°F

1.90 in.

8°C

-2°C

2°C

48.3 mm

Mar

57°F

39°F

48°F

2.80 in.

14°C

4°C

9°C

71.1 mm

Apr

71°F

49°F

60°F

2.50 in.

22°C

9°C

16°C

63.5 mm

May

81°F

56°F

69°F

1.30 in.

27°C

13°C

21°C

33.0 mm

Jun

91°F

63°F

78°F

0.30 in.

33°C

17°C

26°C

7.6 mm

Jul

96°F

66°F

82°F

0.20 in.

36°C

19°C

28°C

5.1 mm

Aug

93°F

63°F

78°F

0.10 in.

34°C

17°C

26°C

2.5 mm

Sep

83°F

54°F

68°F

0.20 in.

28°C

12°C

20°C

5.1 mm

Oct

69°F

45°F

56°F

1.30 in.

21°C

7°C

13°C

33.0 mm

Nov

57°F

38°F

46°F

1.80 in.

14°C

3°C

8°C

45.7 mm

Dec

47°F

31°F

38°F

2.10 in.

8°C

-1°C

3°C

53.3 mm

SHOPPING

"Shopping" is one of the most pleasant motive of any trip, and trips to Uzbekistan are no exception. It is hardly assumeable to visit Uzbekistan and not to bring back a "babaichik" figurine or "tubeteika" traditional Uzbek cap. However, let us start from the beginning. Traveling to Uzbekistan, you must remember that this country is not known mainly for its shopping. However, here you can buy almost anything. In the East, and in particular, in Uzbekistan, people traditionally buy goods at bazaars rather than in shops. If you want a really great bargain, visit the Yangiabad Bazaar, a well known "flea market". The Alayski Bazaar is the oldest and one of the most famous bazaars in Central Asia. Whereas in most department stores the prices are fixed, in the bazaars, private shops and souvenir stores haggling is expected. It is not so difficult to get a huge discount, especially on the prices of hand-crafted products and carpets. Bazaars are the best places to observe the daily life of the local people. Neither the things you buy, nor your new impressions from the bazaar will disappoint you. Suitable places in Tashkent include the "Eski Djouva" or "Chor Su" bazaars, located in the Old City. You will see beautiful rugs, soft silk, intricate khan atlases, dried fruit, spices, handicrafts, Uzbek style souvenirs and traditional hand-made clothes and footwear. Many museums in Tashkent, Bukhara, Samarkand and Khiva have their own small shops offering various hand-made articles, antique items, paintings and aquarelles.

All who have visited Uzbekistan have been particularly delighted with the sweet, juicy, sun-enriched fruit. These fruits are the pride of the local traders. Local "dried fruit" - coragha, dried figs, prunes, raisins, sun-dried melons, almonds, peanuts, walnuts, and sesame seeds in sugary syrup - it's a real "oriental fantasy", and when this delicious produce is skillfully packed by the merchant, it becomes a wonderful "present from Uzbekistan". Shilajit is also one of authentic gifts to take home from Uzbekistan.

CLOTHING
Very light and loose clothing (preferably cotton or natural fibres) is recommended for daytime use, with a light jumper and/or casual jacket for the cooler evenings. Because of a large amount of sightseeing on foot in dry, dusty and sometimes rough areas (i.e. dirt, cobblestones, etc.), comfortable, solid walking shoes with strong soles and support are essential You may be required to remove your shoes on entry to some religious sites. There are no special clothing requirements for visiting Islamic religious sites, except that you should take care to cover most parts of your body including arms and legs. Above all travellers are encouraged to dress for comfort rather than fashion. Valuable jewellery and any clothing requiring special attention should be left at home. Due to very high danger of sunburn, your clothing should offer as much protection as possible. A hat with good shade protection and sunglasses are essential. In some areas the average visitor may appear extremely wealthy to local people. A lavish display of jewellery, bulging handbags and wallets and a neck full of cameras will make you stand out in a crowd. Be discreet, respectful of local culture and traditions and carry the minimum of valuables.

HEALTH
You will be travelling in areas, which are largely free of major infection diseases, so there are no official vaccination requirements for foreign visitors. However we strongly recommend you to consult your physician of the Vaccination Centre for current health warnings and recommended vaccination. As it is practically inevitable in the areas where water is high in mineral and metallic salts (as in the case with Central Asia) one should be prepared for minor gastric complaints. Consult your physician or pharmacist for recommended remedies. Throughout the areas you will be travelling, one of the main health warnings is dehydration. At all times maintain a steady intake of non-alcoholic liquids. Sunburn is another major problem. Bring adequate suntan lotion and a wide brimmed hat. If desired, you may also bring a supply of vitamins, throat lozenges, a throat gargle to prevent basic infections, cold / flu tablets, aspirins, Band-Aids, antiseptics and antibacterial cream. Please, advise us if you have any allergies or particular medical aliments which may require special attention during the trip, if your doctor has prescribed any medication, make sure that you have sufficient supplies to last the duration of your holiday.

IMPORTANT: Please, ensure that you carry in your hand luggage any medicine you may require in case your suitcase is separated from you.

SECURITY
Individual safety boxes are not always available in Central Asian Hotels. An essential part of your luggage is a comfortable money wallet, which may be worn under your clothing. At all times you should carry your main documents (i.e. currency, travellers cheques, air tickets, passports, visas etc.) While it is highly unlikely you will encounter any physical danger, minor thefts in crowded pubic places may occur and every precaution should be taken to avoid loosing anything of value. In accordance with local laws, you will be required to hand in your passport to the hotel reception on arrival to allow registration of your passport details by the hotel. Your passport will normally be available again after a few hours. Do not forget to collect it before departure.

LANGUAGES
A mixture of languages is spoken in Central Asia most of which are of Turkish origin, except for Tajik, which is related to Persian. In addition, Russian is still widely used in Central Asian countries (although English is rapidly replacing this).

PHOTOGRAPHY
No difficulty is put in the way of visitors who wish to photograph places of historic interest. Photography inside some religious monuments and in airports, railway stations or near military installation may not be allowed. If in doubt ask your local guide. Please also note that there is a fee for photography in most sightseeing places (not included in your tour price). Films and batteries are available in major cities, but you are recommended to purchase your supply before arrival, particularly if you have the latest modification or a sophisticated type of camera that requires a specific film and / or batteries.

VOLTAGE
220/230 AC 50 volts. Plugs are the two-pin types as found in continental Europe. Adapters are sometimes available, however you should carry your own.

FOOD
Uzbek cuisine is rich in vegetables, meats, pasta, and rice as well as fat (i.e. cholesterol). Therefore if you have any dietary requirements, please advise us as soon as possible.

DRINKS
Local mineral water contains a higher level of minerals than western spring or bottled water and the taste can be rather "salty" (these mineral waters are considered healthier than European spring or mineral waters). Imported spirits and wines are available, however in some places the provenance of some spirits and wines is questionable and the prices inflated. Accordingly, you are recommended to purchase you favourite alcohol duty free prior to arrival.

INCIDENTIALS
You will be responsible for covering the cost of your hotel incidentals such as phone calls, room service, mini-bar in your room and laundry. Before departing from all the hotels on the tour, please ensure that you have checked with the front desk for any personal charges that the hotel may have made to your room.

TIPPING
Passengers may wish to express their appreciation - reward for extra service to the porters, waiters, drivers and guides. The degree of appreciation may vary, and our policy is to let you decide this. This is usually given individually in an envelope at the end of the tour / service.

GENERAL REMINDERS

  • You are reminded that for the general comfort of all.
  • Smoking is not permitted during coach journeys.
  • You should always report at the advised time, or that given by your Tour Manger.
  • To ensure that the group travel times are not adversely affected by latecomers.
  • Wash hands always before meals (sorry to remind it but it is important).
  • Do not drink TAP WATER, purchase bottled water.
  • Do not eat fruit / vegetables purchased at the market before it is disinfected.
  • Carry a small knife for pealing fruit. Pack this in your aircraft hocked bag for all travel.
  • Keep well hydrated with at least two litters a day or water / tea particularly when in deserts or at altitude.
  • If you should suffer stomach problems DO drink lots of strong black tea, green tea. Do not eat for 24 hours. And report to your local guide, as soon as possible please.

 

Currency Of Uzbekistan

National currency of Uzbekistan is sum (also som, soum) and tiyin. The som is mainly used in Turkic-speaking states of the centralasian region. Its name derives from words in Kazakh, Kyrgyz, Uyghur and Uzbek languages, what means "pure", and connected with the historical coins of pure gold. This currency has been put into circulation in Uzbekistan since 1994 and today is the only means of payment. In circulation there are banknotes of the following value: 1,3,5,10,25,50,100,200,500 and 1000 sum and also coins  1,5,10,25,50,100 sum.  Almost all the banknotes are the same size and only differ in color. It is mainly cultural and historic monuments of Uzbekistan are depicted on the notes. Currently, the entire banknotes and coins circle, but the bills up to ten and the coins up to twenty-five Sums are not used.

 

Since 2004 Uzbek sum (UZS) is a convertible currency. Currency exchange offices are located in the airport, large supermarkets and hotels, in the markets and banks, as well as in district visa and registration offices (at passport departments of the Ministry of Internal Affairs). Majority of currency exchange offices in the city accept euros and US dollars. Other currencies can be exchanged only in those exchange offices, which are located in banks. In hotels currency exchange offices are opened 24 hours 7 days a week. Others usually open at 9 a.m., but their working day is already over at 3.30 or 4 p.m. Not all of them work on weekends and not all the time. Possible problems: insufficient amount of national currency in the exchange office or a long queue if it is situated in a busy place, for example, on the market. In the city, mostly near markets, there are places where from early morning till late night you can find individuals who offer currency exchange on a private basis. You should keep in mind that these actions are illegal and imply criminal responsibility. Both buyer and seller of currency are accountable for this transaction.

Nightlife Of Uzbekistan                                                                                 

Tashkent is well-known for having the most abundant nightlife in Uzbekistan and Central Asia. Whether you are looking for an all-nighter at one of the many modern dance clubs, or a quiet evening dining on fine cuisine, Tashkent has a wide selection of bars, restaurants and clubs to fit any night's desire. So get out and enjoy any of the restaurants providing diverse cuisine, from Spanish to Uzbek to Italian to Punjabi. Then head to a high-tech club for all-night dancing to the latest music and eye popping light shows. Food and fun are at your fingertips.

Night Clubs & Bars

Fabrique (former Niagara)
Location:  1, A.Kodiriy Str.
Cuisine:  European, mixed
Tel.:    778-65-65
Music:  Disco House, Deep House, Progressive House, Tech House, RnB
Parties:  Exclusive parties "Rich & Beautiful" every Thursday, Friday, Saturday and Sunday - the best RnB Sets from resident DJ Svat (Moscow)
Working hours: 22:00 - 05:00

Diamond
Location:  17, Ataturk Str.
Cuisine:  European, Author
Tel.:  (+998 98) 305-53-50, (+998 71) 232-15-62
Working hours: 20:00 - 05:00

Diplomat
Location:  Navoi Avenue, C4 block, 10
Cuisine:    European, Uzbek, Russian, mixed
Entrance fee:    5000 sum for ladies, 5000 sum for gentlemen.

FM Bar Show-club
Location:  Matbuotchilar Str., Zarafshan Entertainment Complex,
Cuisine:  European, Uzbek, Russian, mixed
Entrance fee:    5000 sum for ladies, 5000 sum for gentlemen
Working hours: 20:00 - 05:00

Opera Night Club
Location:  71, Sharaf Rashidov Str., C-5, Courage Memorial
Tel.:  751-53-53, 751-46-46
Working hours: 18:00 - 04:00
Happy hours: 18:00 - 23:00 — discount 20%
Entrance fee: 10000 sum for ladies, 15000 sum for gentle.men, Dress code, Face control.

Neo Night Club
Location: Le Grande Plaza Hotel, 14th floor.
Cuisine: European, Uzbek, Russian, mixed
Entrance Fee: 5000 sum for ladies, 5000 sum for gentlemen.

Languge Of Uzbekistan

The Uzbek language is the only official state language. The Tajik language is widespread in the cities of Bukhara and Samarqand because of their relatively large population of ethnic Tajiks. Russian is still an important language for interethnic communication, especially in the cities, including much day-to-day technical, scientific, governmental and business use. Russian is the main language of over 14% of the population and is spoken as a second language by many more. The use of Russian in remote rural areas has always been limited, and today school children have no proficiency in Russian even in urban centers.

In 1992 Uzbekistan officially shifted back to Latin script from traditional considerations of consistency with Turkey, but many signs and notices (including official government boards in the streets) are still written in Uzbek Cyrillic script that had been used in Uzbek SSR since 1940. Computers as a rule operate using the "Uzbek Cyrillic" keyboard, and Latin script is reportedly composed using the standard English keyboard.

Q1.What is the time difference in Uzbekistan?
Q2. What is the voltage used in Uzbekistan?
Q3. Do I need to be registered when I arrive in Uzbekistan?
Q4. Is filling in the customs declaration form important?
Q5. How much alcohol / tobacco may I import with me to Uzbekistan? What is not permitted?
Q6. Should I carry my passport with me while I am in Uzbekistan?
Q7.How much money is legally allowed into Uzbekistan?
Q8. Are credit cards accepted here?
Q9. How do I get local currency (Soum) in exchange for US$ / EUR, etc?
Q10. How do I make calls or send text messages to someone locally or internationally?
Q11. Where can I take photographs / shoot video?
Q12. Can I get vegetarian meals here? Are there any Indian restaurants?
Q13. How is the nightlife here? Are there any good nightclubs?
Q14. Where can I go shopping here? What should I shop for?
Q15. How is the crime rate here? Is it safe to be out on the streets late at night?
Q16. Is English a widely spoken language here?
Q17. What are the local modes of transport here?
###. Useful russian words for everyday use.


Q1.What is the time difference in Uzbekistan?
Ans. Uzbekistan is +5 GMT or half an hour behind India.

Q2.What is the voltage used in Uzbekistan?
Ans. 220 volts AC, Round 2 pin continental (European style) plugs are used.

Q3. Do I need to be registered when I arrive in Uzbekistan?
Ans. According to local law, you must be registered within 72 hours of your arrival in Uzbekistan; if you happen to depart within that time period, you are free from registration requirements. When you check into your hotel, your passport will be taken for maximum of 1 hour and you will be provided with a registration card (free of charge), which you must keep with you at all times and must not lose, as the local authorities may ask you for this at anytime, and most importantly when you depart for your destination, at the airport.

Q4. Is filling in the customs declaration form important?
Ans. Yes, it is mandatory to fill in the customs declaration form, of which you will receive 2 copies during your flight, before you land at Tashkent International Airport. You have to fill in all the details from your passport, and the most important thing is to fill in the exact amounts of all the foreign currencies that you are carrying with you. The other copy should be filled in and kept with you at all times Upon departure, you will be required to fill in another customs declaration form, which you will have to hand to the customs / immigration officer. The amount that you declare upon leaving should either be equal with the earlier form, or may be less or zero. You cannot declare more upon departure than what you have during arrival, otherwise you shall be questioned regarding from where you have received the money and for what purpose; in some cases, and you and your things may be searched.

Q5.How much alcohol / tobacco may I import with me to Uzbekistan? What is not permitted?
Ans. Per Uzbek law, people 16 years and older may legally import 200 cigarettes or 300gm of tobacco product. It is also perfectly legal to import 2 liters of alcoholic beverages (2 bottles) or 2 liters of wine.

Q6.Should I carry my passport with me while I am in Uzbekistan?
Ans. Yes, it is advisable to carry your passport with you while you are in Uzbekistan, especially while you are traveling independently, during transfers between cities, at train and bus stations, etc. If you happen to walk outside the hotel, visit the local market or explore the city on your own, especially at night, the police have the authority to check your passport, which is a regular occurrence and not a cause for concern. Your passport and registration card should be with you at all times.

Q7. How much money is legally allowed into Uzbekistan?
Ans. According to the law, you are allowed to legally bring up to US$ 5,000 with you into Uzbekistan. If you bring more than US$ 5,000, you have to fill in a special declaration form (ON-28). If the amount is more than US$ 10,000 you shall be charged a 1% duty on it. However, this amount will have to be declared via your customs declaration form.

Q8.Are credit cards accepted here?
Ans. Credit cards (Amex, Visa and Master Card) are accepted in most of the hotels and restaurants here. However, it is not a very well developed system, so it is also advisable to carry a good amount of cash with you as well, so as to avoid any troublesome situations.

Q9.How do I get local currency (Soum) in exchange for US$ / EUR, etc?
Ans. You can exchange money in the local forex office in the hotel where you are staying. Please note that in Uzbekistan, there is a prevalent black market where the rate is higher than the banking rate, BUT this is considered illegal by law, and since these people operate in open markets, bazaars and streets, it could attract the attention of the police and lead to arrest. Please also note that old or damaged currency notes are not generally accepted, or you would only be able to exchange them at a lower rate.

Q10.How do I make calls or send text messages to someone locally or internationally?
Ans. When you purchase a local SIM card (“Beeline” operator is the best option), it takes less than a minute to activate, and can be verified by seeing the name of the service provider which appears on your mobile phone screen. Your number will display as eg. +998 (country code) 90 (service provider code) 1234567 (actual seven digit mobile phone number). You may make calls to anyone locally by only dialing the last seven digits. You may send a text message to anyone locally by using the entire number, or internationally by using the country code (for eg. India +91) followed by their ten digit mobile number. Incoming calls are not charged and so you can receive calls or text messages from your friends, family and relatives if they dial the entire number eg. +998 90 1234567.

Q11.Where can I take photographs / shoot video?
Ans. You are allowed to take photographs / shoot video anywhere you like; at tourist attractions a nominal fee is charged, usually US$ 1-3. In these places, they also have professional photographers who can take group or solo photographs for a small fee. Photography is strictly prohibited in the Underground Metro for security purposes, and there are local police at every metro station. They may, at their discretion, either give you a warning or simply confiscate your camera or cell phone. If you wish to take photographs of local people, it is normally advisable to ask them beforehand.

Q12.Can I get vegetarian meals here? Are there any Indian restaurants?
Ans. Yes, you can find vegetarian local meals here in Uzbek cafes and restaurants. Alternatively, there are a few Indian restaurants located here in Tashkent, which are owned and managed by Indian nationals who would be more than happy to prepare the meals as per your request and preferences eg. Ragu, Bhramji and Raaj Kapur.

Q13.How is the nightlife here? Are there any good nightclubs?
Ans. Tashkent is known for its bustling nightlife culture, and the entire city is dotted with many discos and nightclubs. Some of them worth mentioning are: Casanova, Niagara, Diplomat-S, Sky Club, Rich Club, Juliano, Barhan, FM Bar and the Dutch Club. Many of them are only open from Friday to Sunday. Most have no cover charge during weekdays, before 11 pm.

Q14.Where can I go shopping here? What should I shop for?
Ans. There are large markets (bazaars) located all over Tashkent, which open at 8 in the morning. Suggested purchases are spices, dry fruits, local Uzbek souvenirs, carpets, Shilajit and local wine and vodka. However, in case you purchase antiques from Bukhara / Samarkand, you must confirm the date it was manufactured, as anything purchased before 1959 is strictly prohibited for export without special permission, and anything manufactured after 1959 will not require any permission, except a few exclusive works by renowned authors, eg. holy scriptures, literary works, etc. A special permission from the Ministry of Culture could be received at the main cities and/or in Tashkent Airport at your time of departure and will be subject to duty.

Q15.How is the crime rate here? Is it safe to be out on the streets late at night?
Ans. Tashkent is one of the safest cities in the world, with one of the best security and police networks functioning at all times. The local police are very friendly, especially to tourists, and are always happy to give directions, in case you feel you have lost your way. There are police patrol cars on every road and street corner, and it is safe for even ladies to move around late at night.

Q16.Is English a widely spoken language here?
Ans. Unfortunately, English still is not spoken widely here among the local public. The languages spoken here are Uzbek and Russian. Usually, English is spoken in private offices, hotels, restaurants, souvenir shops, boutiques and some government offices. However, if you do need some help and assistance, you can ask some local young people or students who can speak reasonable English.

Q17.What are the local modes of transport here?
Ans. Tashkent is a very well balanced and modern city which offers many of choices in terms of local transportation. There are taxis, buses, trams and the underground Metro system comprising 3 lines and 29 stations. All transportation systems are easy and convenient to use, and economical.

###. Useful russian words for everyday use

1.Hi Privyet 6.Thank You Spacibo 11.Mr Gozpodin 16.Tomorrow Zavtra 21.Night Club Nochnoy Club
2.How are you Kak dyela? 7.Sorry Izvinitye 12.Ms / Mrs Gozpoja 17.Tea Chay 22.Restaurant Restoran
3.Good Morning Dobroe Utro 8.Please Pajalusta 13.Hotel Gostinitza 18.Bread Non 23.Waiter Ofitziant
4.Good Afternoon Dobriy Dyen 9.Goodbye Do Svidaniya 14.Street Ulitza 19.Water Voda 24.Boy Paren
5.Good Evening Dobriy Vyecher 10.Car Mashina 15.Today Sevodniya 20.Taxi Taxi 25.Girl Devushka